WinDbg debugging commands

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Getting Help

– .help : Display a list of all meta-commands.
– .hh command : Open help file index for the specified command.
– ! [ExtensionDLL.]help : Display help text that describes the extension commands exported from ExtensionDLL or from the extension dll at the top of the chain.


– .srcpath : Display the source search path.
– .srcpath+ path : Append path to the current source file search path.

– .srcnoisy : Display the current status of noisy source loading.
– .srcnoisy {0 | 1 | 2 | 3} : control the verbosity level for source file loading.

– .cls : Clear the Debugger Command window display.

– lsf FileName : Load the source file FileName.
– lsf- : Unload the source file FileName.

– ls first, count : Display count lines starting from first line from the current source file.
– lsp Leading Trailing : Specify Leading and Trailing lines to show before and after the current line.

– lsc : Display the current source file name and line number.
– lse : Open an editor for the current source file.

– l+l / l-l : Show/turn of source line numbers at the command prompt.
– l+s / l-s : Display/hide source lines and source line numbers at the command prompt.
– l+t / l-t : Start source mode / set the debugger is in assembly mode.

– .lines [-e | -d | -t] : Toggle source-line information support [enable | disable | toggle].


– x *! : List all modules.
– x module!* : List all symbols loaded from module.
– x /t /v module!* : List all symbol in module with data type, symbol type and size.
– x module!pattern* : show me all the symbols loaded from module that begin with pattern.
– x module!*pattern* : Finds all of the symbols in module that contain the string pattern.

– .sympath+ path : Add symbols located in path.
– !sym noisy : Activate noisy symbol loading.

– .reload /f driver.sys : Force the debugger to immediately reload symbols for driver.sys.
– .reload /u driver.sys : Unload driver.sys and all its symbols.

Loaded modules

– lm : Display all loaded and unloaded modules.
– lm f : List loaded modules with full path.
– lm t : List loaded modules with last modified timestamp.
– lm v m module : Display all possible information for module.

– !dlls -v -c ntdll : Display table entries and version information for ntdll.dll, including Loadcount.

– !lmi driver.sys : Display detailed information about driver.sys, including symbol information.
– !dh ndis : Display file headers for ndis.sys.


– |* : Print status of all processes being debugged.
– |. : Print status of the current process.

– .tlist : Lists all processes running on the system.
– !peb : Display formatted view of the process’s environment block (PEB).

– !process 0 0 : List all active processes with basic details.
– !process 0 7 process : Display full details for process.


– ~ : Display status for all threads in the current process.

– ~* k : Call stack for all threads.
– ~number n : Suspend thread whose ordinal is number.
– ~number m : Resume thread whose ordinal is number.
– ~number f : Freeze thread whose ordinal is number.
– ~number u : Unfreeze thread whose ordinal is number.
– ~number s : Switch to thread whose ordinal is number.

– ~# f : Freeze the thread causing the current exception.

– !thread : Display current thread on the target system.
– !thread -t ThreadID : Dump thread which ID is ThreadID.
– !ready : Display summary information about each thread in the system in a READY state.

– !analyse -v : Display verbose information about the current exception or bug check.
– !analyze -show BugCheckCode : Display information about BugCheckCode bug check code.


– bl – List existing breakpoints. Each breakpoint listed has a number in the list.
– bc * : Clear all breakpoints.
– bc number : Clear breakpoint identified by number.
– be number : Enable breakpoint identified by number.
– bd number : Disable breakpoint identified by number.

– bp `module!source.c:20` : Set breakpoint at source.c line 20 in module.
– bm module!pattern* : Set a breakpoint on symbols starting with pattern in module.
– bu module!function : Set a breakpoint on function as soon as module is loaded.

– ba r4 variable : Set a breakpoint for read access on 4 bytes of variable.
– ba w4 address : Set a breakpoint for write access on 4 bytes at address.
– bp @@(class::method) : Break on method defined in class. Useful if the same method is overloaded and thus present on several addresses.

– bp module!function /1 : Trigger only once a breakpoint at function in module.
– bp module!function k : Hit breakpoint at function in module after k-1 passes.

– ba w4 address “k;g” : Display call stack every write access on 4 bytes at address.
– bu module!function “.dump C:\Dump.dmp; g” : Create a dump in C:\Dump.dmp every time breakpoint at function in module is hit.

– bp /t thread : Set a kernel mode breakpoint that only triggers when hit in the context of the associated thread.
– bp /p process : Set a kernel mode breakpoint that only triggers when hit in the context of the associated process.

-.logopen FilePath; .bpcmds; .logclose : Save breakpoints to FilePath.
– $<FilePath : Reload breakpoints from FilePath.

Tracing and stepping

– g : Start executing the given process or thread.
– g `:number`; ? poi(variable); g : Executes the current program to source line number, print the value of variable then resume execution.
– gc : Resume execution from a conditional breakpoint.
– gu : Execute until the current function is complete.
– gh : Go with Exception Handled.
– gn,: Go with Exception Not Handled.
– p : Step over.
– t : Step in.
– pr : Toggle displaying of registers.
– p count “kb” : Step through count source lines then execute “kb”.
– pc : Step to next CALL instruction.
– pt – Steps through until the next return instruction.
– pa address : Step until address is reached.
– wt : Trace and watch the execution flow of a function and its sub-functions.
– wt -l Depth -oR : Trace sub-functions to Depth and display their return values.

Call stack

– k : Display call stack.
– kn : Display call stack with frame numbers.
– kb : Display call stack with first three parameters passed to each function.
– kb FrameCount : Display first FrameCount frames only.
– kp : Display all of the parameters for each function that is called in the stack trace.
– kn : Display frame numbers.

– !findstack symbol 2 : Display all stacks that contain symbol.

– .frame : Show current frame.
– .frame FrameNumber : Set frame FrameNumber for the local context.
– .frame /r FrameNumber : Display registers in frame FrameNumber.

– !running -ti : Dump the stacks of each thread that is running on all processors.
– !stacks : Give a brief summary of the state of every thread.


– rm ? : Show possible Mask bits.
– rm 1 : Enable integer registers only.
– r : Display the integer registers.
– r eax, edx : Display only eax and edx.
– r eax=5, edx=6 : Assign new values to eax and edx.
– r eax:1ub : Display only the first byte from eax.
– rF : Display the floating-point register.


– dv /t /i /V : Dump local variables with type information, addresses and EBP offsets and classify them into categories.
– dt module!pattern* -v -s Length : List with verbose output all variables that begin with pattern in module that have Length bytes size.

– dt ntdll!_PEB : Dump _PEB structure.
– dt module!struct : Show fields of the structure struct defined in module with their offsets and types.
– dt module!struct -rCount : Dump fields of the structure struct defined in module recursively for Count levels.

– dt module!struct var. : Dump var defined in strcut in module and expand its subfields.
– dt module!struct var.. : Expand subfields of var defined in strcut in module for 2 levels.


– dd address : Display double-words at address.
– dd address LLength: Display Length double-words at address.
– du address : Display unicode chars at address.
– du address LLength : Display Length unicode chars at address.
– !mapped_file address : Display name of file that contains address.
– !address : Show all memory regions of our process.
– !address address : Retreive inforamation about a region of memory at address.

– eb address value : Set byte at address to value.
– ew address value : Set word at address to value.
– ed address value : Set double-word at address to value.

– ds /c width address : Display width chars at address.
– dS /c width address : Display width unicode chars at address.

– c address1 LLength address2 : Compare Length bytes at address1 with address2.
– m address1 LLength address2 : Move Length bytes at address1 to address2.
– f address LLength ‘A’ ‘B’ ‘C’ – Fill memory location from address to address + Length – 1 with the pattern “ABC”, repeated as many times as necessary.

– s -a address LLength “pattern” : Search memory location from address to address + Length – 1 for pattern.
– s -wa address LLength “pattern” : Search only writable memory from address to address + Length – 1 for pattern.

– !poolused : Display memory use summaries, based on the tag used for each pool allocation.
– !vm : Display summary information about virtual memory use statistics on the target system.

– u address : Unassemble code at address.


– dt ntdll!_HEAP : Dump _HEAP structure.
– !heap : List all heaps with index and Heap address.
– !heap -h : List all of the current process heap with start and end addresses.
– !heap -h HeapIndex : Display detailed heap information for heap with index HeapIndex.
– !heap -s 0 : Display summary for all heaps including reserved and committed memory …
– !heap -flt s 0x50 : Display all of the allocations of size 0x50.
– !heap -stat -h address : Display heap usage statistics for HeapHandle is equal to address.
– !heap -b alloc tag HeapIndex : Breakpoint in heap with index HeapIndex on HeapAlloc calls with TAG equal to tag.
– !heap -p -all : Display details of all allocations in all heaps in the process.
– !heap -l : Make the debugger detect leaked heap blocks.

Memory dump

– .dump FileName : Dump small memory image into FileName.
– .dump /ma FileName : Dump complete memory image into FileName.


– !locks : Display all kernel mode locks held on resources by threads.
– !qlocks : Display the state of all queued spin locks.

Extension DLLs

– .load ExtensionDLL : Load the extension DLL ExtensionDLL into the debugger.
– .unload ExtensionDLL : Unload the extension DLL ExtensionDLL.

– .chain : List all extensions that the debugger has loaded.
– .unloadall : Unload all extension DLLs from the debugger.
– .setdll ExtensionDLL : Change the default extension DLL to ExtensionDLL for the debugger

Application Verifier

– !avrf : Display a variety of output produced by Application Verifier. If a Stop has occurred, reveal the its nature and what caused it.
– !verifier 0xf : Display the status of Driver Verifier and its actions.
– !verifier 0x80 address : Display log associated with the specified address within the kernel pool Allocate and Free operations.
– !verifier 0x100 address : Display log associated with the IRP at address.